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  Most popular articles (Since June 16, 2015)

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Sterilization monitoring by biological indicators and conventional swab test of different sterilization processes used in orthodontics: A comparative study
Shantanu Khattri, Madhvi Bhardwaj, Sunita Shrivastava
April-June 2015, 49(2):67-70
Introduction: The need of effective sterilization method and their monitoring is necessary. Biological indicators are specific microorganisms with high resistance toward particular sterilization methods. Their processes include steam autoclave, dry heat sterilizer, ethylene oxide sterilizer. This article has considered various methods to monitor the effectiveness of different sterilization methods used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: The parameters for comparison were the control and experimental instruments utilized in orthodontic treatment. The efficacy of sterilization was evaluated by comparison of bacterial growth obtained in monitoring by biological indicators and swab test method. Results: No spore growth was found when sterilization process was evaluated by biological indicators in comparison to swab test where spore growth was present. Instruments dipped in Bioclenz-G solution for 10 min showed spore growth, but no spore growth was seen in 10 h cycle. Discussion: The result of the study verifies the established effectiveness of biological indicators over conventional swab test method in monitoring various sterilization processes used in orthodontics. Bioclenz-G solution can be used as an effective cold sterilization method for sterilization. Conclusion: For evaluating the effectiveness of sterilization, biological indicators preclude the drawbacks of incomplete verification of destruction of all vegetation and inordinate delay in procurement of results as is the case with chemical indicators and lab culture, respectively.
  9,764 207 -
A simple technique for stabilizing fixed retainer wires after de-bonding
Jaber Abdullah Al-Mazhani, Fouad A El-Sharaby, Yehya A Mostafa
January-March 2016, 50(1):63-63
Many orthodontists believe that the only way to maintain the ideal alignment after orthodontic treatment would be by permanent retention in the form of a fixed lingual wire. Broken or de-bonded retainers are difficult to be replaced as securing them in place becomes more difficult after removal of the fixed orthodontic appliance. Introduced here a simple technique developed for stabilizing the fixed retainer wire after de-bonding.
  8,662 247 -
Nonsurgical correction of facial asymmetry and occlusal plane cant in a nongrowing female: Acase report
Aditi Gaur, Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Fehmi Mian
July-September 2017, 51(3):185-191
The present article describes a case report of a 19-year-old female with facial asymmetry and chin deviation towards the right. Sequential extraction of all four first premolars was performed for midline correction and alignment of blocked out lateral incisors. After the teeth were aligned in the arch, asymmetric elastics were used for correction of the canine and molar relation. Improved facial and dental esthetics were achieved after orthodontic treatment. The posttreatment results were maintained 1year after the treatment. Orthodontic treatment can successfully improve facial appearance in patients with mild facial asymmetry, thus eliminating the need for orthognathic surgery in such cases.
  8,274 457 -
Orthodontic space closure using simple mechanics in compromised first molar extraction spaces: Case series
Prashant M Dhole, Divya O Maheshwari
January-March 2018, 52(1):51-59
Orthodontic treatments involving missing or compromised first permanent molars are often challenging cases to treat considering the loss of potential anchor tooth. The case series presents orthodontic treatment in three patients with mutilated/absent first permanent molars. The treatment goals were to be accomplished by extraction of compromised teeth and retention of healthy dentition. The diagnosis and problem list needed extractions to accomplish the treatment goals. The possibility of extracting compromised first permanent molars instead of other healthy teeth was considered. A setup was done to determine the final occlusion in asymmetric extraction cases. Fixed appliances were used with simple mechanics without any additional anchorage devices. Case-based retention protocols were followed. All the three patients achieved the predetermined treatment objectives of improved esthetics and healthy and stable functional occlusion. The simple and efficient mechanics and finishing techniques for comprehensive orthodontic treatment with first molar extractions presented in the report should help clinicians when treating similar patients.
  7,532 580 -
Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion
Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy
December 2015, 49(5):19-26
Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.
  6,673 510 -
Functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion: Where do we stand today?*
OP Kharbanda, S Chaurasia
December 2015, 49(5):33-41
Class II malocclusion may present with skeletal features of mandibular retrognathism, midface protrusion, and dental features of distal step molar relation, an unusually large overjet and/or variable combination these features. With a variety of craniofacial morphology associated with Class II malocclusion, the type of functional appliance (FA) to choose and the timings of treatment are fundamental to treatment outcome and prognosis. Mandibular retrognathism has befallen to be the most universal rationale for availing orthodontic treatment. Europeans have traditionally tried to grow locked mandible in young children efficiently by jaw propulsors, collectively termed as FAs. FAs have come a long way since the introduction of "bite-jumping" appliance by Norman Kingsley with gradual evolution of these appliances through monobloc, activator, Frankel, bionator, twin block appliance and fixed functional appliances which can now be attached to facial skeleton with implant anchorage. Although timing of treatment, mode of their action, treatment benefits and mechanism of craniofacial adaptation have been researched extensively, the subject of FA has always been a matter of discussion with conflicting views. This paper provides an up to date gist of functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion.
  6,074 448 -
Management of impacted maxillary canines using the Kilroy spring: A case series
Anil Sharma, Upendra Jain, Amitabh Kallury, Ritesh Chhajed
July-September 2016, 50(3):177-183
Kilroy Springs are cantilever spring auxiliaries that have been added to orthodontic armamentarium to provide forces to maxillary impacted teeth so as to direct their eruption downward and toward the dental arch. Dr. Bowman had designed and developed these orthodontic auxiliaries to assist in the correction of impacted maxillary canines, one of the most problematic dilemmas in our specialty. The key to dealing with impacted maxillary canines is to provide specific directional forces to insure that these teeth are moved down into the dental arch from the point where they are "stuck" in the jaw. These auxiliaries provide a versatile and predictable biomechanics for the correction of a very complex problem of canine impaction. This article describes three cases to highlight the efficacy of these springs.
  5,579 439 1
A severe skeletal Class II correction by activator headgear combination
Shivam Agrawal, Prashant Gupta, Nandini Venkatesh Kamat
January-March 2016, 50(1):42-47
Skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency and maxillary excess is a severe skeletal problem encountered in growing individuals. Correction of mandibular deficiency and maxillary excess in a skeletal Class II patient with a vertical growth pattern poses a great challenge. The control of vertical dimension becomes very important as downward and backward rotation of mandible will exaggerate the facial convexity. The present case signifies the importance of functional jaw orthopedic treatment in a vertically growing female patient with mandibular deficiency and maxillary vertical excess. Activator headgear combination was used for skeletal correction which was followed by fixed mechanotherapy. Superimposition of pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric tracings shows desired treatment outcomes.
  5,379 329 -
An evaluation of YEN and W angle in the assessment of anteroposterior jaw relationship
Anushka Mittal, Sumit Bohra, PS Murali, K Saidath, US Krishnanayak
January-March 2016, 50(1):26-30
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate two cephalometric variables: YEN angle and W angle in the assessment of sagittal jaw discrepancy. Materials and Methods: A sample of 75 subjects were categorized as Class I (Group I), II (Group II), and III (Group III) based on ANB angle, Beta angle, and Wits appraisal. The YEN angle and W angle were measured for each patient in all the three groups on a lateral cephalogram. ANOVA analysis, post hoc assessment, and correlation coefficient analysis were done. Results: Mean value of YEN angle for Class I, II, and III groups was 119.79 (±3.575), 112.08 (±6.606), and 128.67 (±4.63) degrees, respectively. Mean value of W angle for Class I, II, and III groups was 54.5 (±4.09), 47.5 (±6.679), and 55.33 (±6.041) degrees, respectively. The coefficient of variance was found to be least for YEN angle followed by the W angle. The ANOVA analysis revealed highly significant differences among the means of all the three Groups (Group I, Group II, and Group III) for YEN angle and between Group I and II for W angle. Post hoc assessment revealed that YEN angle significantly differentiated among the three groups whereas W angle failed to differentiate between Group I and Group III. Pearson's correlation test revealed that YEN angle and W angle were highly correlated. Conclusion: YEN angle with the least coefficient of variance was the most homogenously distributed parameter to assess the anteroposterior dysplasia. In addition, it could significantly differentiate among the three groups and was highly correlated to ANB, Wits, and W angle.
  4,832 290 -
A comparison of seven mixed dentition analysis methods and to evaluate the most reliable one in Nalgonda population
Vikasini Kondapaka, Vasu Murthy Sesham, Praveen Kumar Neela, Pavan Kumar Mamillapalli
January-March 2015, 49(1):3-9
Objective: To determine the most reliable mixed dentition analysis method for Nalgonda population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 boys and 60 girls of Nalgonda population, in the age group of 13-16 years. The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the permanent incisors, canines, premolars, and 1 st permanent molars were measured on the study models of all the subjects. Seven different mixed dentition analyses were performed which include Bachmann's, Gross and Hassund's, Trankmann et al., Camilo et al., Legovic et al., Tanaka-Johnston and Moyer's methods and were later compared. The Pearson's Correlation coefficients were calculated between the sums of the mesiodistal diameters (MDDs) of permanent canine, and premolars as measured on the study models and the predicted MDDs of the same using each of these seven methods. Results: The correlation coefficient r was highest for Moyer's mixed dentition analysis with a value of 0.957 and 0.979 in the mandibular and maxillary arch respectively for boys and 0.935 and 0.946 in the mandibular and maxillary arch respectively for girls. Conclusion: Moyer's mixed dentition analysis was found to be the most reliable method for both boys and girls of Nalgonda population of all the 7 methods compared.
  4,742 262 -
Infra-zygomatic crest and buccal shelf - Orthodontic bone screws: A leap ahead of micro-implants – Clinical perspectives
Abhisek Ghosh
December 2018, 52(6):127-141
Absolute anchorage systems have stormed the world of orthodontics over the past two decades with its ability to produce skeletal anchorage, converting borderline surgical cases into non-surgical and extraction cases into non-extraction or even bringing about the esthetic impact which was difficult to achieve by conventional mechanics. Among the skeletal anchorage systems, the most popular being – mini-implants or micro-screws which have an intra-radicular site of placement. Their greatest advantage being the ease and minimally invasive methods of placement and the commonest disadvantage being early loosening during the course of treatment. A more rigid alternative was then introduced called as the SAS -Skeletal Anchorage Systems (I-plate, Y-plate etc) with its extra-radicular site of placement, which did overcome the high failure rates of a regular mini-implant but then their placement required raising of flaps and extensive surgical intervention. More recently an apt balance was achieved with the advent of the -Orthodontic Bone Screws (OBS) which not only had an extra-radicular site of placement in the infra-zygomatic crest of the maxilla and the buccal shelf area of the mandible, with significantly less failure rates than regular mini-implants but also doesn't require extensive surgical intervention for their placement. This article is aimed at providing an overview - to the recently introduced OBS system, their technical, bio material and bio-mechanical differences with the commonly used mini-implant system, the case selection criteria, advantages, disadvantages and an in-depth to the cases treated with them.
  3,628 1,149 -
TAD – transpalatal arch-MOD combination system: An effective tool in the nonsurgical management of individuals with vertical facial patterns and gummy smiles
Abhisek Ghosh
April-June 2017, 51(2):110-118
The treatment of vertical facial patterns with gummy smiles in adults has long been a challenge to the orthodontist. Before the advent of microimplants, correction of such complex skeletal problems in adults was only possible with the help of orthognathic surgery. Orthognathic surgery in such situations aimed at LeFort I impaction of the maxillary dentoalveolar segment followed by counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, thereby improving the gummy smile and chin prominence. With the introduction of skeletal anchorage systems and microimplants in the last decade and the promising results that it has shown over the years, we as orthodontist now believe that surgery can definitely be avoided in selected cases when temporary anchorage devices are used – orthognathic surgery such as orthodontics. Microimplants have therefore expanded the envelope of discrepancy on which the orthodontist can work on. This case report focuses on the use of the TAD – Transpalatal arch-MOD combination system for nonsurgical management of adults with vertical facial pattern and gummy smile and details of the biomechanical perspectives associated with it.
  4,154 522 -
Modified posterior bite block for scissor bite correction
Umal Hiralal Doshi
October-December 2016, 50(4):272-273
Scissor bite or complete buccal crossbite can be limited to a single tooth or group of teeth. It is most commonly seen with second molars. Treatment modalities to correct the buccal inclination of maxillary second molar along with lingual inclination of mandibular molar is limited to use of cross-elastics or recently, use of micro-implants. Present case describes a simple method to correct such single tooth scissor bite with minimal side effect of extrusion and no need of any surgical intervention.
  4,366 284 -
Indian Board of orthodontics case report – Dr.Prem Prakash Memorial Award
V K Shakeel Ahmed
July-September 2017, 51(3):192-199
This case report was adjudged one of the best-treated cases displayed in the Indian Board of Orthodontics after the board certification process. The summary of the treatment and various records are reprinted here with minimal editing and reformatting so that the presentation resembles the actual documents submitted to the board.
  4,163 290 -
Closure of a maxillary midline diastema using a modified omega loop
Malvika Gandhi, Rohan Hattarki, KM Keluskar
July-September 2015, 49(3):161-162
A maxillary midline diastema is important from a clinical management standpoint by virtue of its presence, as well as the esthetic concerns it causes to the patient. While seen in many children as a part of normal development in the mixed dentition (only to disappear as the growth progresses), it may persist in situations associated with some or the other etiological factors. These could be tooth size-shape discrepancy, midline cysts, missing lateral incisors, habits (thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, etc.), familial tendencies, abnormal labial frenum, etc., Treatment planning should seek to manage not only the diastemata in question but also the cause behind it. Possible therapeutic approaches include orthodontic treatment, restorative dentistry, surgery, and its various combinations. This article describes a modified form of loop mechanics used to close diastemata.
  4,108 261 -
Orthodontic management of impacted central incisor: A clinical challenge
Amit Kumar Khera, Ajit Rohilla, Pradeep Tandon, Gyan P Singh
January-March 2017, 51(1):46-50
Multiple treatment options are available for patients who have impacted incisor. This paper shows a case in which orthodontic as well as surgical considerations in 10-year-old female child were presented in the management of impacted central incisor. The orthodontic treatment plan included three steps – creation of space, exposure of crown, and forced eruption. A unique and innovative technique for orthodontic traction (0.017 × 0.025 TMA wire with palatal extension) was employed to move the maxillary incisor into arch, with minimum injury to neighboring soft tissue. After the successful management of impacted teeth, it is very important to periodically review the periodontal condition and stability.
  3,917 374 -
Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires
Stephen Chain, Priyank Seth, Namrata Rastogi, Kenneth Tan, Mayank Gupta, Richa Singh
July-September 2015, 49(3):163-164
Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.
  3,914 238 -
Wing-bib multi helix maxillary expander
Mugdha P Mankar
January-March 2017, 51(1):51-53
An orthodontic appliance for maxillary expansion is presented, which consists of a wire assembly fabricated from 0.032” round straight length beta-titanium wire. Posterior active portion of the appliance consists of a trihelix omega loop parallel to palatal surface, providing transverse expansion and distalizing forces on the first molars. Anterior active portion consisting of an acrylic apron (bib) over a (wing-like) wire framework, provides transverse expansion at the anterolateral slopes of the palate including the depths; lying directly over the envisioned canine- first premolar root area of the palatal vault surface.
  3,883 132 -
Evaluation of efficiency of two nanohydroxyapatite remineralizing agents with a hydroxyapatite and a conventional dentifrice: A comparative In vitro study
Abhishek Singh, Balamohan Shetty, CM Mahesh, Vinay P Reddy, BS Chandrashekar, S Mahendra
April-June 2017, 51(2):92-102
Aim: This study was designed to compare the relative efficiency of nanohydroxyapatite (n-Hap) Aclaim, n-HAp Apagard, Clinpro Tooth Crème and Colgate Total in remineralization. Settings and Design: One hundred and eight healthy maxillary first premolars devoid of decay, restoration, and attrition were used. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel premolar brackets were bonded on all the teeth. The teeth were randomly assigned into three groups and subgroups of 12 teeth each. The samples of each group were immersed separately in an artificial saliva solution for 23 h and acid solution for 1 h for 31 days, following by sectioning and observing under polarized light microscope. The depths of the demineralized enamel in each experimental and control section were measured at three sites of the gingival demineralized area. The first site D1, near the gingival margin, the second site D2 at middle third and the third site D3 near the occlusal margin of the gingival demineralized area. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test were used. Results: Aclaim and Apagard were most efficient in prevention of demineralization. Maximum depth of demineralization was observed at site D2. Conclusions: Aclaim and Apagard on daily application will provide maximum protection against enamel demineralization in orthodontic patients.
  3,707 196 1
Effect of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement
Gagan Deep Kochar, Sanjay M Londhe, Bensy Varghese, Balakrishna Jayan, Sarvaraj Kohli, Virender Singh Kohli
April-June 2017, 51(2):81-86
Introduction: Prolonged orthodontic treatment duration is detrimental in terms of increased incidence of caries, root resorption, and reduced patient compliance. The aim of this randomized, clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and pain control. Materials and Methods: This single-blind study included twenty participants requiring extraction of all first premolars. Randomly selected split-mouth design was used. One side was irradiated with 810 nm diode laser (dose of 5.0 J/cm2) at 10 points for 10 s. Irradiation was performed just after loading canine retraction forces and on days 3rd and 7th. Every 21st day, the force level of coil spring was adjusted, and LLLT protocol was repeated till retraction was complete. Measurements were recorded on study models to evaluate the rate of retraction. Results: Significant increase in OTM was observed on the side exposed to LLLT when compared to control side (P < 0.05). Statistically significant difference in pain perception was observed during first 2 days only between lased site and control site (P < 0.05). Conclusion: LLLT is a reliable tool for enhancing OTM and is effective in relieving pain at parameter settings and protocol used in this study.
  3,387 286 1
Indian Board of Orthodontics case report – Treatment of a severe Class II division 1 malocclusion with twin-block appliance and PEA
Sumitra Reddy
April-June 2016, 50(2):120-125
This case was submitted to the board under category II for the Indian Board of Orthodontics examination, December 2008. The case summary, records, treatment progress, and critical appraisal are presented as submitted to the board. One-year posttreatment retention records were presented in the examination. The case report is updated with the long-term retention records of 7.5 years posttreatment to show excellent stability of the result.
  3,401 250 -
A novel approach for the correction of unilateral scissor bite using micro-implants
Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale, Ketan K Vakil, Jeegar K Vakil
January-March 2016, 50(1):59-60
Unilateral scissor bite is a relatively rare malocclusion. However, its correction is often difficult and a challenge for clinician. This present "short clinical communication" indicates the versatility and use of micro-implants for the correction of severe unilateral scissor bite in an adult case.
  3,192 164 -
A comparative study of forces in labial and lingual orthodontics using finite element method
Rohan Mascarenhas, Laxmikanth Chatra, Satish Shenoy, Akhter Husain, Jenny Mary Mathew, Shahista Parveen
January-March 2015, 49(1):15-18
Background: Orthodontic treatment requires optimum force to achieve desirable tooth movement with minimal damage to the root, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. Hence, quantifying the magnitude and direction of force is very important for orthodontic treatment. Both labial orthodontics (LaO) and lingual orthodontics (LiO) are used for orthodontic tooth movements, which differ considerably in their biomechanics. Although these differences have been explained, force magnitude need to be evaluated. Aims: 1. To evaluate the differences in biomechanics of tipping movement in LaO and LiO using finite element method (FEM). 2. To quantify the reduced amount of force in LiO as compared LaO in tipping. Study Settings: It is a computational tool where three-dimensional (3D) FEM models of upper incisor is simulated in order to map and compare the stress produced by tipping movement performed with lingual and LaO. Materials and Methods: A 3D FEM model of the maxillary right central incisor was made from a geometric model. A 50 g tipping force was applied on a labial side. The principal stress patterns in the PDL for orthodontic tooth movement were recorded. When 50 g of tipping force was applied from a lingual side, higher stress values were observed. The forces on the lingual side were reduced to 45 g, 40 g, 35 g, 34 g, 33.5 g, and 33 g to check the maximum stress pattern on PDL. Results: A 50 g tipping force applied on the labial side will bring about 0.0252 N/mm 2 maximum principal stress. When the same amount of force applied on the lingual side will bring about 0.0375 N/mm 2 maximum principal stress. A 33.6-g force applied on the lingual side will bring about 0.0252 N/mm 2 maximum principal stress which is similar to 50 g of force applied on the lingual side. Conclusion: A palatally directed tipping force of 33.6 g in LiO was sufficient for orthodontic tooth movement. Tipping in LiO required 32.8% less force when compared to LaO.
  3,174 127 1
The current evidence and implications of lingual orthodontics
Pratap Saini, Hema Sharma, Anmol S Kalha, Anil K Chandna
December 2016, 50(5):4-9
The purpose of this review is to investigate the current evidence and implications of lingual orthodontics. The electronic database search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCOhost, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar reporting on appliance design, bonding, and laboratory setup, biomechanics, survey studies, case reports, and treatment outcomes to find the current evidence of lingual orthodontics. The evidence available on lingual orthodontics traces a very clear and predictable pattern. The 80's was devoted to the limitation and progression of the concept; the 90's to the comparison between labial and lingual and the evolution of laboratory technique and bracket system. The last decade focuses on innovations, the predictability of outcomes, the impact of white spot lesion, and the patient acceptability. This review also shows that biomechanical principles of lingual orthodontics are well understood and established today, any case that can be treated with labial orthodontic appliance, can also be treated effectively with lingual orthodontic appliance as the completely customized lingual appliance can provide predetermined treatment outcome.
  2,848 278 1
Analysis of pharyngeal airway space and tongue position in individuals with different body types and facial patterns: A cephalometric study
Rohit Kulshrestha, Ragni Tandon, Kamlesh Singh, Pratik Chandra
July-September 2015, 49(3):139-144
Aim: To evaluate if the different body types and facial patterns have any effect on the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway space and tongue position. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (age 13-30 years) with no history of previous orthodontic treatment, jaw surgeries, or functional jaw orthopedics were taken and divided into different groups based on their body built. They were further subdivided into different groups based on their Frankfort Mandibular Angle. Group I included 30 subjects (15 males, 15 females) who were ectomorphic (body mass index [BMI] < 20). Group II included 30 subjects (16 males, 14 females) who were mesomorphic (BMI between 20 and 25), and Group III included 30 subjects (14 males, 16 females) who were endomorphic (BMI > 25). Lateral cephalograms were traced manually to evaluate the pharyngeal airway passage and tongue position. Results: When the comparison between different facial growth patterns was done, differences in soft palate inclination (P < 0.004) and upper pharyngeal wall - pterygomaxillary (P < 0.012) was found to be statistically significant. A significant difference among different growth patterns was observed for the soft palate inclination between the hypo- and hyper-divergent groups (P < 0.003). No significant differences were seen when a comparison between different facial types (irrespective of growth) was done. No significant difference was seen in the position of the tongue in all the groups. Conclusion: Different body types and facial patterns had a significant effect on the dimension of the pharyngeal airway space but no significant effect on the position of the tongue.
  2,906 182 -