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   Table of Contents - Current issue
December 2018
Volume 52 | Issue 6 (Supplement)
Page Nos. 75-160

Online since Friday, December 7, 2018

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Message: JIOS 50th year commemorative issue p. 75

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The last word! p. 78

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Engineers' contribution to the development of orthodontics during its formative years (a historical review) p. 83
Vijay P Jayade
The contribution of numerous engineers to the field of orthodontics, when it was in its nascent stage, has not been well documented. Without taking into account their numerous inputs and the devices and materials which they developed, the story of the evolution of orthodontics would be incomplete. The present article aims at filling this lacuna in the documented history of orthodontics.
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Reminiscences and musings on half a century of the journal of indian orthodontic society p. 93
Jyothindra Kumar
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Cleft care in India: What is missing? p. 97
Om P Kharbanda, Nitika Monga
Dr. Om P. Kharabanda's particular field of interest in orthodontics is related to the comprehensive care of Cleft lip and palate. He has made a significant national and International contribution to the development of interdisciplinary cleft care and has lectured extensively on the subject across the globe. He is the past President of the Indian Society of the Cleft Lip and Palate and Co-Chairman of the Global task force 2017.
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Cephalometrics for you and me – Valid in today's scenario? p. 101
Vignesh Kailasam, Ashima Valiathan
Cephalometrics is no panacea, alone or in conjunction with other records. An appraisal of cephalometrics and its limitations is probably the need of the hour. The deficiency of cephalometrics starts at the very beginning that is in the head positioning. Landmark definition is the biggest Achilles heel of cephalometrics. With the lack of clarity in landmark definition, identification and error in location having not been fully addressed, the actual problem arises since it these same landmarks which are used to construct planes and angles. The problem compounds with the description of some of the planes used for analysis being, at best, vague. In our view, however, the biggest disadvantage of cephalometrics is the limited acceptance of the racial variation in various measurements and how this has not been duly factored into the clinical diagnosis. The less said about the myriad of cephalometric analyses available and their contradictions. This begs the questions which of these analyses are more reliable. Thus, in conclusion, inspite of these limitations listed and noted for more than 50 years, cephalometrics, particularly lateral cephalometric radiography, though strictly not an essential diagnostic aid, continues to be popular and serves the clinical orthodontist with additional and what appears to be as essential and invaluable data.
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Optimizing interdisciplinary orthodontics p. 105
Ashok Karad
Orthodontics has always been the discipline that sets the stage for dentofacial esthetics. With the increasing demand for appeal and appearance, orthodontic treatment of adults has been the fastest growing field. In addition to esthetics, increased awareness of malocclusion, functional benefits of orthodontic treatment, advances in materials, esthetically pleasing and biomechanically sound appliances, and interdisciplinary treatment philosophy have all played an important role in making orthodontic treatment popular in adult population. However, in recent years, increased focus on simplified and rapid intervention has created compromises in treatment outcomes. Lack of fundamental diagnosis and systematically sequenced treatment plans are being circumvented by technology and reliance on laboratory assistance. Diagnostic process, essence of treatment planning, and biologic basis seem to be diminishing in importance. This article deals with the philosophy and treatment approach that brings together a diverse group of professionals into a cohesive interdisciplinary team to provide treatment strategies for the adult patient. It explains existing and new orthodontic, periodontic, surgical, and restorative techniques that provide the best possible solution to complex dentofacial problems.
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Clinical experiences with self-ligation brackets in India p. 115
Gurkeerat Singh, Rajesh Patil
As the markets get flooded by ever evolving self-ligation brackets, the clinician is likely to get carried away by marketing gimmicks and false promises. A simple yet extensive review of self-ligating brackets used by the authors is presented along with case reports. The purpose is not to be critical of individual products but present the wide variety of such brackets available today. The choice of the bracket system is based on multiple factors and quality of certain products just makes the life of the clinician as well as the patient more comfortable. The case reports emphasis that the end result is primarily due to the clinical acumen of the operator and every individual system requires a learning curve to be overcome.
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Infra-zygomatic crest and buccal shelf - Orthodontic bone screws: A leap ahead of micro-implants – Clinical perspectives p. 127
Abhisek Ghosh
Absolute anchorage systems have stormed the world of orthodontics over the past two decades with its ability to produce skeletal anchorage, converting borderline surgical cases into non-surgical and extraction cases into non-extraction or even bringing about the esthetic impact which was difficult to achieve by conventional mechanics. Among the skeletal anchorage systems, the most popular being – mini-implants or micro-screws which have an intra-radicular site of placement. Their greatest advantage being the ease and minimally invasive methods of placement and the commonest disadvantage being early loosening during the course of treatment. A more rigid alternative was then introduced called as the SAS -Skeletal Anchorage Systems (I-plate, Y-plate etc) with its extra-radicular site of placement, which did overcome the high failure rates of a regular mini-implant but then their placement required raising of flaps and extensive surgical intervention. More recently an apt balance was achieved with the advent of the -Orthodontic Bone Screws (OBS) which not only had an extra-radicular site of placement in the infra-zygomatic crest of the maxilla and the buccal shelf area of the mandible, with significantly less failure rates than regular mini-implants but also doesn't require extensive surgical intervention for their placement. This article is aimed at providing an overview - to the recently introduced OBS system, their technical, bio material and bio-mechanical differences with the commonly used mini-implant system, the case selection criteria, advantages, disadvantages and an in-depth to the cases treated with them.
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Infinite applications of finite element method p. 142
Rohan Mascarenhas, Shahistha Parveen, B Satish Shenoy, G S. Stanly Selva Kumar, Vardhadharajula Venkata Ramaiah
Different types of orthodontic tooth movement may produce different mechanical stresses in varying locations within the root. The quantification of stress in the periodontal ligament is an important concept as stress in this tissue is transmitted to alveolus with subsequent bone remodeling and tooth movement. Constructing complicated three-dimensional shapes of tissues with different biomechanical properties and characteristics make the finite element method (FEM), the most suitable means of analysis. Finite element analysis is a computer-based numerical technique for calculating the strength and behavior of materials. This method uses elements, nodes, and contour plots to provide a good visual impression. The basic concept of FEM is the subdivision of a body into many smaller elements. The FEM is an engineering resource used to calculate stress and deformations in complex structures, and it has been widely applied in biomedical research. FEM helps to visualize stress, strain, and displacement and to study the materials of complex geometric shapes made of different materials and complex loading. FEM gives results with a reasonable degree of accuracy and has proved to be a less time-consuming process in experimental research. Even though small differences may remain between reality and FEM, the numerical system can reveal otherwise inaccessible stress distribution. The FEM has reformed biomechanical research in Orthodontics, as it represents a noninvasive, accurate method that provides quantitative and detailed data regarding orthodontic biomechanics and physiological responses occurring in tissues, tooth. However, FEM has “inherent” errors where an object with smooth surfaces will not be completely included, as the FE model uses approximated domain which tends to leave out some areas at the boundaries.
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Influence of malocclusion on masticatory sounds: A In vivo study p. 151
Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan, Fayeez Abdullah, Farzana Fathima Nafi, Lodd Mahendra, Ramaswamy Madasamy
Background: Orthodontic correction is usually focused on dental esthetics; however, masticatory function is an important parameter to assess the success of treatment. The main objective of this study is to determine if an association exists between malocclusion and chewing sounds, after being assessed with three different food types. How far a malocclusion alters an individual's chewing nature can aid us in assessing the potential of teeth alignment in mastication and the consequence of orthodontic correction on the same. Methodology: The study was conducted on three groups of patients (Class I normal occlusion, Class I with increased overjet, and Class II div 1). The patients were asked to chew three types of food items; apple, biscuit, and peanut. The recordings were taken inside an acoustically treated soundproof box using an AKG HC 577 L microphone with a sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz in mono with 32 bits per sample. The recordings were analyzed using WavePad FFT software in a Mac laptop and plotted as a spectrogram using the Hanning window function. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups for all the three types of food materials. Conclusion: The results of this study showed insignificant association between malocclusion and masticatory sounds. A more comprehensive study with a larger sample size will be needed to analyze the results further.
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An interview with Dr. Kwangchul Choy p. 157
Sridevi Padmanabhan, Vignesh Kailasam
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