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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 177-184

Evaluation of enamel loss with bonding and debonding: Astudy with profile projector


1 Asst. Prof., Department of Orthodontics, Career Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Prof. and HOD, Department of Orthodontics, Subharti Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Prof, Department of Orthodontics, Subharti Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Orthodontics, Subharti University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission17-Mar-2017
Date of Acceptance07-Jun-2017
Date of Web Publication17-Jul-2017

Correspondence Address:
Juhi Yadav
Department of Orthodontics, Career Dental College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jios.jios_34_17

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Accidental detachment of brackets is a common problem in orthodontic bonding and removal of the residual resin certainly results in some amount of enamel loss. Aims: The present study was undertaken to measure and compare the amount of enamel loss with different prophylactic methods and to check which method results in the least amount of enamel loss. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty human premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment purpose were included in the study and divided into three groups of forty samples each: Group1(tungsten carbide bur), Group2 (diamond bur), and Group3(soflex disc). The groups were further subdivided into subgroups(a and b) of twenty samples each for different etching times. The enamel loss was measured with profile projector. Results: The mean enamel loss for different subgroups was as follows-subgroup1a tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 20 s=69.06 μm and subgroup1b tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 40 s=70 μm, subgroup2a diamond bur with etching time of 20 s=76 μm and subgroup2b diamond bur with etching time of 40 s=76.12μm, and subgroup3a soflex disc with etching time of 20 s=68.32 μm and subgroup3b soflex disc with etching time of 40 s=72.24 μm. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance showed a significant difference(P<0.05) in mean enamel loss between three prophylactic methods using different etching times. Unpaired t-test showed no significant difference in mean enamel loss between 20 and 40 s of etching time within groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that tungsten carbide bur resulted in the least amount of enamel loss and gouging and scarring is minimum when viewed with naked eye.

Keywords: Bonding, diamond bur, enamel loss, profile projector, soflex disc, tungsten carbide bur


How to cite this article:
Yadav J, Raghav P, Reddy M, Ahuja N K. Evaluation of enamel loss with bonding and debonding: Astudy with profile projector. J Indian Orthod Soc 2017;51:177-84

How to cite this URL:
Yadav J, Raghav P, Reddy M, Ahuja N K. Evaluation of enamel loss with bonding and debonding: Astudy with profile projector. J Indian Orthod Soc [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 May 25];51:177-84. Available from: http://www.jios.in/text.asp?2017/51/3/177/210910


  Introduction Top


Bonding has transformed the tedium of appliance construction into an efficient and pleasant operation for both patients and clinician. The bonding procedure requires debonding at the termination of treatment. The objectives of debonding are to remove the attachments and all adhesive resin from tooth and to restore the surface as closely to its pretreatment condition. To achieve these objectives, correct bonding and debonding techniques are of fundamental importance. There are several factors fundamental for bracket removal, the armamentarium for resin removal, and the type of adhesive used.

The earliest studies relating the effects on the enamel surface when debonding metal brackets were conducted by Newman and Facq 1971. They concluded that removal of the brackets and the adhesive followed by pumicing restored the tooth surface to its original appearance.

Several studies reported on various techniques for the removal of residual resin after debracketing and their effects on enamel surface. All techniques reported produced different degrees of polish and some introduced abrasion anomalies accompanied by a significant loss of enamel. Attempts have been made to separate the enamel loss into its component parts during pumicing, acid etching, debonding, and final cleanup. Many found that a Prophy brush can remove two to four times the amount of enamel as a Prophy cup. The gross removal of residual composite left on the enamel surface after debonding is thought to be best accomplished with a tungsten carbide bur.[1] Retief and Denys [2] described the removal of bonded attachments and their finishing and concluded that debonding pliers, scalers, and diamond finishing burs should not be used to remove the remaining resin after debonding because they cause deep gouges in the enamel. They recommended using a 12-bladed tungsten carbide bur at high speed with adequate air cooling to remove bulk resin. Many methods have been suggested to measure enamel loss qualitatively and quantitatively after debonding: direct study of the perikymata pattern on the tooth surface,[3],[4] use of a reference marker inserted in the enamel surface as a point of reference,[3],[5],[6] taking impressions and making models of the enamel surface before and after bonding, then measuring the enamel loss with scanning electron microscopy(SEM).

The purpose of the study was to measure and compare the enamel loss invitro by profile projector caused by different prophylactic methods after repeated debonding.

Aim and objectives

  1. To evaluate enamel loss using different prophylactic methods after repeated debonding of orthodontic attachments


    1. First group of forty teeth with tungsten carbide bur and polished
    2. Second group of forty teeth with diamond bur and polished
    3. Third group with soflex disc


  2. To evaluate enamel loss for all groups while etching for 20 or 40 s for similar prophylactic method.



  Materials and Methods Top


A sample of 120 human premolars freshly extracted for orthodontic purpose was collected. All the teeth had intact enamel with no cracks, no caries, and teeth not subjected to any pretreatment chemical agents. All the collected teeth were cleaned of saliva and blood and stored in distilled water. One hundred and twenty preadjusted stainless steel brackets, Roth prescription, were used. The average base surface area was determined to be 10.25 mm 2[Roth Prescription American Orthodontics]. Adhesive used was Transbond XT [7][Adhesive 3M Unitek Laboratory, Monrovia, CA, USA].

Method

The sample teeth were mounted along their long axis in dental stone exposing their crown portion. All the samples were taken, and holes were made above cervicoenamel junction on each tooth, and a 21-gauge needle was passed through hole and cemented projecting outward the buccal heights of crowns[Needle Dispovan]. This needle acted as a reference marker to determine the enamel loss. Then, for base measurements, reference marker was placed along X axis of profile projector[Profile Projector, Bausch and Lomb US 333] and the length was measured, then the tooth was moved on microstage on Y axis for a distance of 3mm toward the occlusal side and measurements were made. The difference of both readings recorded was the actual thickness. Measurements were made for each tooth[profile projector table].

The sample was randomly divided into three groups of forty teeth each. These groups were further subdivided into subgroups according to etching time used for conditioning. All the subgroup had twenty samples each.

  • Subgroup1a: Etching time of 20 s
  • Subgroup1b: Etching time of 40 s
  • Subgroup2a: Etching time of 20 s
  • Subgroup2b: Etching time of 40 s
  • Subgroup3a: Etching time of 20 s
  • Subgroup3b: Etching time of 40 s.


The facial surface of each subgroup teeth 1a, 2a, and 3a were conditioned with 37% orthophosphoric acid [8] for 20 s whereas 1b, 2b, and 3b were conditioned for 40 s with the same strength. They were then rinsed with distilled water for 20 s and dried with moisture and oil-free compressed air until enamel had a frosted appearance. Transbond XT light cure adhesive sealer was applied and then thinned with 2 s air blast. The stainless steel premolar brackets had an 80-gauge foil mesh with surface tooth contact area of 10.25 mm 2. Transbond XT light cure composite resin was applied to each bracket base, and the bracket was then pressed onto the enamel surface. After the excess material was removed, the bracket was aligned on the profile projector with the long axis of tooth and 3mm to the reference marker. Curing was done for 10 s on each mesial and distal sides[Light Cure 2500, 3M Unitek Laboratory, Monrovia, CA, USA]. Sample was stored in distilled water for 24h for polymerization. The bonded brackets were removed with the help of Howe pliers[CAT] and clean-up procedures were done,[4],[9],[10],[11]

Group1-Finishing with tungsten carbide bur(SS WHITE) and polishing with rubber cup

Group2-Finishing with diamond bur(CE) and rubber cup

Group3-Finishing with soflex discs(3M ESPE CE).

Clean-up speed was 20,000 rpm [12] using micromotor with contra-angle handpiece. Cleanup of tooth surface was evaluated with visual and tactile sensation.

After finishing, polishing was done with pumice mixed with water using rubber cup [6] until shiny surface appeared.

To evaluate enamel loss, all the teeth were measured the same way as previously. Differences of these measurements were then recorded for the enamel loss for each tooth.

Now, the same procedure was repeated once again to evaluate the loss with second debonding.


  Results Top


The mean enamel loss with different prophylactic methods for etching time of 20 and 40 s is shown in [Table1].
Table 1: Mean enamel loss with different prophylactic methods for etching time of 20 and 40 seconds


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Student's t-test was applied to compare any difference in the values of various subgroups. Unpaired t-test revealed that there was no significant difference between the enamel loss for 20 s and 40 s(P>0.05) of etching time when the same prophylactic method was used [Table 2].
Table 2: Unpaired t-test table for 20 and 40 s of etching time in different three groups using same prophylactic method


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In the tungsten carbide group, the difference in the values of subgroup a and b was not significant(P>0.05).

In the diamond bur group, there was no significant difference in the values of subgroup a compared with b.

In the soflex disc group, there was no significant difference in the values of subgroup a compared to b.

F-test-to test the significant difference among the three prophylactic methods for 20 s and 40 s of etching time at 5% level of significance, a significant difference was observed for both the time periods(Fcal>Ftab), i.e.,P<0.05 when different prophylactic method was used [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 3: ANOVA table for different groups at etching time of 20 s using different prophylactic methods


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Table 4: ANOVA table for different groups at etching time of 40 s using different prophylactic methods


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  Discussion Top


In the course of orthodontic therapy, accidental detachment of brackets is a common problem. The bonding procedure requires debonding at the termination of orthodontic treatment. The objectives of debonding are to remove the attachments and all the adhesive resin from tooth surface and to restore the surface as closely as possible to its pretreatment condition. To achieve these objectives, correct bonding and debonding techniques are of fundamental importance. The search for an efficient and safe method of adhesive resin removal following debonding has attracted the interest of many researchers, resulting in introduction of a wide array of instruments and procedures. In spite of substantial increase in the means available for the removal of adhesive resin postdebonding, the methods utilized to investigate the effects of various resin grinding methods have not followed the same pace. Standard microscopic techniques lack a quantitative scale and cannot quantitate the enamel loss. Hence, keeping this in mind the purpose of the study became to measure and compare invitro enamel loss during different prophylactic methods after debonding.

The profile projector was used to measure the enamel loss consequent to prophylaxis of residual resin after debonding. Although quantification of enamel loss can be done using different techniques requiring the use of SEM namely:

  1. Indirect technique where impressions are made after bonding and enamel loss measured by SEM.
  2. Measuring height of perikymata which are subjected to a great deal of natural variation and cannot be very reliable. Whereas profile projector is considered to be more accurate, convenient, and easy to record the measurements as stated by Pus and Way, 1980;[3] Brown and Way, 1978;[5] and Thompson and Way, 1981.[6] Other factors that can affect the enamel loss are taken into consideration so that enamel loss should be minimal. After debonding, residual resin is required to be removed to attain smooth and clear surface. In our study, we had three prophylactic finishing instruments with micromotor for removal of residual resin that is:


    1. 30-fluted tungsten carbide bur as they are considered efficient for removal of filled resins with least amount of scaling. Other available tungsten carbide burs such as 8-, 12-, 16-fluted are generally used for bulk removal of resin.[2] Since lesser the number of the flutes, more aggressive is the cutting action of the bur [13]
    2. Fine diamond burs rather than coarse were chosen for cleanup procedures, as coarser diamond burs produce gouging and more enamel loss [14]
    3. Medium grit soflex disc was used in the third group. Super fine and fine discs were not used as they are advocated to be used for polishing procedures.


Most of the published work related to debonding and prophylaxis exists on a qualitative assessment of the enamel surface rather than quantitative enamel loss. Our study is essentially quantitative. It reveals that with first debond, there is 26.61 μm and 28.61 μm of enamel loss with etching times of 20 and 40 s, respectively, whereas Fitzpatrick and Way 1977[9] in their study recorded a loss of 55.6 μm with first debond using fluted tungsten carbide bur while etching with 30% orthophosphoric acid for a time period of 90 s.

While measuring enamel loss after second debond and using tungsten carbide bur as prophylactic instrument, the loss measured is 69.06 μm and 70 μm against etching time of 20 and 40 s, respectively. Thompson and Way, 1981,[6] study quoted enamel loss of 71.5 μm with third debond using filled resins and 45.4 μm with unfilled resins[Figure1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3] and [Table5], [Table 6].
Figure 1: Tungsten carbide bur group (20 s enamel loss)

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Figure 2: Tungsten carbide bur group (40 s enamel loss)

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Figure 3: Tungsten carbide bur group (comparison of 20 and 40 s enamel loss)

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Table 5: Enamel loss with tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 20 seconds


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Table 6: Enamel loss with tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 40 seconds


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Enamel assessment surface studies of Campbell 1995,[1] Retief and Denys 1979,[2] and Piacentini and Sfondrini 1996[15] as such quote that diamond burs cause maximum damage to enamel surface resulting in scarring and gouging. These findings may be due to high hardness of diamond bur and soflex disc in comparison to enamel. Diamond particles have a mho scale of 10 whereas soflex disc which is composed of aluminum oxide have a mho scale of 9 which is quite high compared to enamel (5 mho). Hence diamond and soflex discs are more abrasive to enamel. As per our study, the loss of 76 and 76.12 μm was measured using diamond burs for the etching time of 20 and 40 s, respectively[Figure4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6] and [Table7], [Table 8]. The soflex disc group showed enamel loss of 68.32 and 72.24 μm [Figure7],[Figure 8],[Figure 9] and [Table9], [Table 10] against etching time of 20 and 40 s which is more in comparison to tungsten carbide burs[Figure10].
Figure 4: Diamond bur group (20 s enamel loss)

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Figure 5: Diamond bur group (40 s enamel loss)

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Figure 6: Diamond bur group (comparison 20 and 40 s enamel los

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Figure 7: Soflex disc group (20 s enamel loss)

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Figure 8: Soflex disc group (40 s enamel loss)

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Figure 9: Soflex disc group (comparison 20 and 40 s enamel loss)

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Figure 10: Comparison of enamel loss in all groups

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Table 7: Enamel loss with diamond bur with etching time of 20 seconds


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Table 8: Enamel loss with diamond bur with etching time of 40 seconds


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Table 9: Enamel loss with soflex disc with etching time of 20 seconds


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Table 10: Enamel loss with soflex disc with etching time of 40 seconds


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The work of Thompson and Way 1981[6] and Eversoll and Moore 1988[16] strongly suggests that the enamel loss is much more with filled resins than unfilled resins; however, the bond strength is lesser with unfilled resins. From the results of the present study, it is quite clear that repeated debonds are very harmful and its results in greater loss of enamel leading to loss of the outermost fluoride layer which can be detrimental to the dentition. Hence, correct bonding is very crucial and important.


  Conclusion Top


As per the results of our study after repeated debonding, it is concluded that:

  1. The mean enamel loss of the groups evaluated in the study are as follows-


    1. Tungsten carbide bur group:


      • Subgroup1a tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 20 s=69.06 μm
      • Subgroup1b tungsten carbide bur with etching time of 40 s=70 μm


    2. Diamond bur group:


      • Subgroup2a diamond bur group with etching time of 20 s=76 μm
      • Subgroup2b diamond bur group with etching time of 40 s=76.12 μm


    3. Soflex discs group:


      • Subgroup3a soflex disc group with etching time of 20 s=68.32 μm
      • Subgroup3b soflex disc group with etching time of 40 s=72.24 μm.


      • Tungsten carbide bur group produced least and statistically significant(P<0.5) amount of enamel loss for both subgroups of etching time. Diamond bur group produced the maximum amount of enamel loss irrespective of the etching time.


    4. Etching time of 20 and 40 s had no significant difference in enamel loss in any group of study for similar prophylactic methods used.


According to our study, the measured enamel loss is the least when tungsten carbide bur is used after repeated debonding, and gouging and scarring is minimum when viewed with naked eyes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
CampbellPM. Enamel surfaces after orthodontic bracket debonding. Angle Orthod 1995;65:103-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
RetiefDH, DenysFR. Finishing of enamel surfaces after debonding of orthodontic attachments. Angle Orthod 1979;49:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
PusMD, WayDC. Enamel loss due to orthodontic bonding with filled and unfilled resins using various clean-up techniques. Am J Orthod 1980;77:269-83.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
ZachrissonBU, ArthunJ. Enamel surface appearance after various debonding techniques. Am J Orthod 1979;75:121-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
BrownCR, WayDC. Enamel loss during orthodontic bonding and subsequent loss during removal of filled and unfilled adhesives. Am J Orthod 1978;74:663-71.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
ThompsonRE, WayDC. Enamel loss due to prophylaxis and multiple bonding/debonding of orthodontic attachments. Am J Orthod 1981;79:282-95.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
WangWN, MengCL. Astudy of bond strength between light-and self-cured orthodontic resin. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1992;101:350-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Soetopo, BeechDR, HardwickJL. Mechanism of adhesion of polymers to acid-etched enamel. Effect of acid concentration and washing on bond strength. JOral Rehabil 1978;5:69-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
FitzpatrickDA, WayDC. The effects of wear, acid etching, and bond removal on human enamel. Am J Orthod 1977;72:671-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
KrellKV, CoureyJM, BisharaSE. Orthodontic bracket removal using conventional and ultrasonic debonding techniques, enamel loss, and time requirements. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993;103:258-66.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
ZarrinniaK, EidNM, KehoeMJ. The effect of different debonding techniques on the enamel surface: An invitro qualitative study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995;108:284-93.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
GwinnettAJ, GorelickL. Microscopic evaluation of enamel after debonding: Clinical application. Am J Orthod 1977;71:651-65.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Haywood VB, Heymann HO, Kusy RP, Whitley JQ, Andreaus SB. Polishing porcelain veneers: An SEM and specular reflectance analysis. Dent Material 1988;4:116-21.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
AncowitzS, TorresT, RostamiH. Texturing and polishing. The final attempt at value control. Dent Clin North Am 1998;42:607-12, viii.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
PiacentiniC, SfondriniG. Ascanning electron microscopy comparison of enamel polishing methods after air-rotor stripping. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1996;109:57-63.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
EversollDK, MooreRN. Bonding orthodontic acrylic resin to enamel. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1988;93:477-85.  Back to cited text no. 16
    


    Figures

  [Figure1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure10]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table5], [Table 6], [Table7], [Table 8], [Table9], [Table 10]



 

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