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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-91

Demography of publications in South Asian Orthodontic Journals


1 Asst. Prof, Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
2 Associate Prof, Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Date of Submission20-Aug-2016
Date of Acceptance14-Mar-2017
Date of Web Publication17-Apr-2017

Correspondence Address:
Rajesh Gyawali
Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan 56700
Nepal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jios.jios_178_16

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  Abstract 


Objective: To explore the demographic features of the articles published in South Asian orthodontic journals in the last 6 years. Materials and Methods: All the orthodontic journals published from or representing South Asian countries from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed for the number of issues published, number of articles, number of authors, country affiliation of principal author, and international collaboration in authorship. Further, article type was classified and number of citations was noted. Descriptive statistics was used to characterize the various features of the published articles. Results: A total of 825 articles were found in five orthodontic journals published from or representing South Asian region with the number authors per article ranging up to 10. International collaboration in authorship varied from 0.98% to 12.75% of articles among those journals. For all journals, principal authors of most of the articles originated from the country of publishing journal. Cross-sectional study overnumbered other types of researches. However, systematic reviews and meta-analysis which are considered as the highest form of evidence were very scant in these journals. Conclusions: International collaboration in authorship and foreign principal investigator was found minimum. Greater percentage of publications were cross-sectional studies with few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis in the last 6 years.

Keywords: Demography, orthodontic journals, South Asia


How to cite this article:
Gyawali R, Pokharel PR, Giri J. Demography of publications in South Asian Orthodontic Journals. J Indian Orthod Soc 2017;51:87-91

How to cite this URL:
Gyawali R, Pokharel PR, Giri J. Demography of publications in South Asian Orthodontic Journals. J Indian Orthod Soc [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Mar 18];51:87-91. Available from: http://www.jios.in/text.asp?2017/51/2/87/204604




  Introduction Top


Dissemination of the research findings can take place in many ways, and publication is one of them which is gaining popularity among the contemporary researchers. Starting from “The American Orthodontist” in 1907,[1] currently, we have numerous online orthodontic journals spreading the latest orthodontic progress to the global community. With shifting of the paradigm from anecdotal evidence to the evidence-based practice, there is an increase in the number of researches conducted worldwide and so is the number of publications.[2] Not only the numbers but also the quality of the publication has improved with increasing original researches, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses.[3]

Although a quarter of the world's population reside in South Asian region, the rise of orthodontics here was rather late as compared to Europe and America.[4] However, in the past few decades, the development of orthodontics in South Asia is trying to catch up with the rest of the world. With similar trends, many journals focused in orthodontics are also published from South Asian countries. Although the demography of the articles published in major international orthodontic journals has been discussed in the literature,[2],[5] South Asian orthodontic journals lack the attention.

The quality of publications reflects the standards of orthodontic practice. To evaluate the progress of orthodontics in South Asia, articles published in orthodontic journals of this region need to be critically evaluated. Hence, this study was aimed to explore the demographic features of the articles published in South Asian orthodontic journals in the last 6 years.


  Materials and Methods Top


The selection of journals was based on two criteria: publication from or representing South Asian countries and focused in orthodontics. Only five orthodontic journals were found fulfilling these criteria which include APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BJODO), The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society (JIOS), Orthodontic Journal of Nepal (OJN), and Pakistan Orthodontic Journal (POJ). Among these five orthodontic journals, youngest is the OJN and APOS Trends in Orthodontics which started their publication since 2011. Hence, only the articles published since 2011–2016 were included in this study.

Full texts of all the articles published from 2011 to 2016 in these journals were assessed electronically. Excluding the editorial, invited reviews, book reviews, letter to the editors, and retracted articles, all other articles were evaluated to obtain information regarding the number of authors, country affiliation of principal author, and international collaboration in authorship. Further, the article types were identified as clinical research article, review, case report/series, clinical innovation/tips, in vitro experiments, and finite element study.

As suggested by Grimes and Schulz, the clinical research article was classified into observational and experimental.[6] An observational study was further subdivided into descriptive, case–control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies. Based on random allocation, experimental study could be randomized controlled trial or nonrandomized controlled trial. Depending on the prespecified scientific criteria to select different studies, review articles were classified into narrative review and systematic review (with or without meta-analysis).[7]

All the articles were assessed by two authors independently (RG and JG), and in case of dispute regarding type of article, third opinion from PRP was sought and the decision was finalized. Descriptive statistics depicting all the mentioned characteristics of the published studies were calculated and cross-tabulated with Microsoft Excel 2013.


  Results Top


All the South Asian orthodontic journals – APOS Trends in Orthodontics, BJODO, JIOS, OJN, and POJ – were searched electronically for the issues from 2011 to 2016. Electronic search of the issues published in those journals revealed that BJODO has not published any issues since 2014 (till January 2017). In addition, OJN and POJ have not published the second issue of 2016 (till January 2017) [Table 1]. As all these journals are open access, full texts of all the articles were downloaded to get further information regarding the article.
Table 1: Number of issues published between 2011 and 2016

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A total of 825 articles were found, of which JIOS publications were more in number. The number of authors in an article was found up to 10 with more articles authored by 2 researchers in BJODO; 3 in APOS Trends in Orthodontics, JIOS, and POJ; and 4 authors in OJN [Table 2].
Table 2: Total number of articles with number of authors in South Asian Journals

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Maximum international collaboration in authorship was found in OJN with 12.75% of the total articles involved authors from at least two countries; minimum was found in JIOS where international collaboration was seen in 0.98% of articles [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Bar chart showing the percentage of articles with international collaboration in authorship

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In APOS Trends in Orthodontics, principal investigators of most of the articles were from India. Among other four journals, principal authors of most of the articles originated from the country of publishing journal and OJN showed the highest percentage (43 of 102) of articles by principal investigator with foreign affiliation [Table 3].
Table 3: Country affiliation of principal investigator in South Asian Orthodontic Journals

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Regarding the types of articles, cross-sectional study overnumbered other types of researches. However, systematic reviews and meta-analysis which are considered as the highest form of evidence were scant in these journals within the included time frame [Table 4].
Table 4: Types of articles published in South Asian Orthodontic Journals (2011--2016)

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Citations of the articles published were also calculated which was based on the information shown by Google Scholar (till January 2017). Only the articles from 2011 to 2014 were included for calculation of citations. In total, articles published in JIOS received highest number of citations, but on calculating the ratio of citations per article published, OJN was slightly ahead [Table 5].
Table 5: Citations of articles published in South Asian Orthodontic Journals (2011--2014

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  Discussion Top


This study was conducted with the aim of exploring the scenario of orthodontic journals of South Asian countries and analyzing the published articles. Of the eight countries in this region, only four orthodontic journals are published by the orthodontic association of respective countries. APOS Trends in Orthodontics on the other hand represents this region including other Asia-Pacific countries. Among them, JIOS has a long history which started its publication since 1966 whereas POJ and BJODO were introduced in 2009 and 2010, respectively. APOS Trends in Orthodotnics and OJN started its publication since 2011. Further, timely publication of the issues of some journals was not found. No issue of BJODO was seen since 2014 and second issues of 2016 of OJN and POJ were not published till January 2017.

The principal investigators of most of the articles were from the publishing country. OJN showed the highest percentage of articles with foreign principal investigator whereas JIOS showed the minimum. This could be due to nationality bias, the occurrence of which has been discussed by various authors in the literature.[8],[9] Similar trend was also found in major orthodontic journals - AJODO and EJO had more authorship from the USA/Canada and European Union countries, respectively.[2] In addition, personal influence of the authors on the members of editorial board could be high in native country leading to easy publication in native journal.

Collaboration among researchers from different countries and different educational background such as material science and engineering, anatomy, and embryology had helped broaden the boundary of orthodontic advancement.[10] International collaboration provides an opportunity to share information and experiences which could significantly improve the quality of research and clinical expertise. Collaborative research could help the developing countries by pooling of the resources.[11] International collaboration in authorship was seen more in OJN and least in JIOS among these four periodicals.

The number of authors in an article ranged up to ten authors. Increase in multiple authorship indicates collaboration among researchers in the particular field of study. Multiple brains working in a particular area would definitely evolve better result but whether all the coauthors really had a significant contribution remains doubtful. The practice of “honorary authorship” which has been revealed in the past [12] could be prevalent in the South Asian region; however, further investigations are needed for the clarification.

Large number of publications were cross-sectional studies followed by case report and clinical innovation. Very few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis were found. Publication for the sake of promotion in academic institutions have forced researchers to publish trivial papers instead of publishing papers which can contribute to the filed of science. Lack of fund and dedicated time in research may drive the busy clinicians to undertake cross-sectional studies which are relatively easier and less time consuming compared to randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews.

Citations of the articles published in South Asian orthodontic journals were also calculated. As none of the journals had an impact factor, citations were based on the information shown by Google Scholar. Articles published in JIOS received highest number of citations, but on calculating the ratio of citations per article published, OJN was slightly ahead. OJN had more foreign principal investigators and more international collaboration in authorship, which might have increased the number of international readers and thus increased citations.


  Conclusions Top


  • International collaboration in authorship and foreign principal investigator was found to be minimum
  • Cross-sectional study outnumbered the publications with very few randomized controlled trials and systematic review/meta-analysis
  • Delay in the publication of the issues was seen in some South Asian Journals.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Asbell MB. A brief history of orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1990;98:176-83.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Baumgartner S, Pandis N, Eliades T. Exploring the publications in three major orthodontic journals: A comparative analysis of two 5-year periods. Angle Orthod 2014;84:397-403.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kanavakis G, Dombroski MM, Malouf DP, Athanasiou AE. Demographic characteristics of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials in orthodontic journals with impact factor. Eur J Orthod 2016;38:57-65.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kharbanda OP. Orthodontics in SAARC Countries: Emerging the Force within. Orthod J Nepal 2015;4:5-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Vaid N, Doshi V, Vandekar M. What's “Trend” ing in Orthodontic literature? APOS Trends Orthod 2016;6:1.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Grimes DA, Schulz KF. An overview of clinical research: The lay of the land. Lancet 2002;359:57-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
O'Connor D, Green S, Higgins JP. Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies. In: Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Ch. 5. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Lee CJ, Sugimoto CR, Zhang G, Cronin B. Bias in peer review. J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 2013;64:2-17.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Yousefi-Nooraie R, Shakiba B, Mortaz-Hejri S. Country development and manuscript selection bias: A review of published studies. BMC Med Res Methodol 2006;6:37.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Kanavakis G, Spinos P, Polychronopoulou A, Eliades T, Papadopoulos MA, Athanasiou AE. Orthodontic journals with impact factors in perspective: Trends in the types of articles and authorship characteristics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;130:516-22.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rolfe MK, Bryar RM, Hjelm K, Apelquist J, Fletcher M, Anderson BL. International collaboration to address common problems in health care: Processes, practicalities and power. Int Nurs Rev 2004;51:140-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
LaFollette MC. Stealing Into Print: Fraud, Plagiarism, and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing. Oakland, California: University of California Press; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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