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SPECIAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 33-41

Functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion: Where do we stand today?*


1 Professor and Head, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Deformities, Centre for Dental Education and Research, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Former Postgraduate Student, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Deformities, Centre for Dental Education and Research, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
O P Kharbanda
Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Deformities, Centre for Dental Education and Research, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0301-5742.171198

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Class II malocclusion may present with skeletal features of mandibular retrognathism, midface protrusion, and dental features of distal step molar relation, an unusually large overjet and/or variable combination these features. With a variety of craniofacial morphology associated with Class II malocclusion, the type of functional appliance (FA) to choose and the timings of treatment are fundamental to treatment outcome and prognosis. Mandibular retrognathism has befallen to be the most universal rationale for availing orthodontic treatment. Europeans have traditionally tried to grow locked mandible in young children efficiently by jaw propulsors, collectively termed as FAs. FAs have come a long way since the introduction of "bite-jumping" appliance by Norman Kingsley with gradual evolution of these appliances through monobloc, activator, Frankel, bionator, twin block appliance and fixed functional appliances which can now be attached to facial skeleton with implant anchorage. Although timing of treatment, mode of their action, treatment benefits and mechanism of craniofacial adaptation have been researched extensively, the subject of FA has always been a matter of discussion with conflicting views. This paper provides an up to date gist of functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion.


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